Thursday, August 27, 2020
Us aviation routes swot examination US Airways SWOT Analysis Statement of purpose Client care has consistently been a need at US Airways, and we are focused on making the most of each trip for our esteemed clients. Our guarantee to you, the security and fulfillment of our clients is a top need for our carrier. Clients initially is the aftereffect of a joint exertion of the aircraft business, the US Congress and the US Department of transportation to address the key help components that influences our clients. New Mission Statement Here at US Airways, we endeavor to make a cutting edge voyaging experience for our travelers. Our young armada offers travelers the solace and extravagance of 21st century flight. From Wi-Fi, to satellite TV to seats that leans back as beds, when u fly with us, youre consistently associated with the cutting edge world. Quality of US Airways US Airways has a lot of solidarity as a significant aircraft. After its merger with America West in 2005, it turned into the fifth biggest aircraft in the US, joining the East Coast unmistakable quality of US Airways and the West Coast qualities of America West. US Airways works in excess of 3,800 takeoffs every day to 240 goals in 32 nations and flies almost 70 million travelers per year. The organization has two auxiliaries, US Airways Shuttle and US Airways Express which give hourly short take trips in the appeal metropolitan regions of NY, BOS, DC. This specifically is an incredible quality of US Airways since business flyers much of the time travel between those urban communities consistently and will in general rat those flights. The following is an image of the airplane which gives these short separation trips to the business class. It additionally works direct flights associating business and joy voyagers among Philadelphia and London. Perhaps the greatest quality that US Airways holds over the various carriers is that it works the biggest armada of Airbus airplane on the planet, especially the Airbus A320 family which is viewed as the pioneer in the single-path jetliner showcase. The A320 family comprises of four airplanes (A318, A319, A320, and A321) which reacts to carriers requirements for upgraded lodge designs, better stuff and load dealing with, greatest operational adaptability on short and medium take courses and in particular lower working costs that solitary another age airplane can offer. The Envoy Class and seats that US Airways flights have is quality in pulling in business voyagers. The Envoy Sleeper situates as they are known are situates on the A330-300 in business class that lean back totally level and structure a bed as appeared in figure 2 underneath. Those other plane models that don't have the emissary seats have an agent class in which each seat is fitted with an individual on request screen to watch films, mess around, watch coordinated TV, and each seat has an EmPower outlet. Different aircrafts normally just have one outlet for every 2 seats in mentor or have discarded the outlets through and through. US Airways is likewise adding the Envoy Sleeper seats to its transoceanic B767 models. US Airways additionally have programs that give it qualities in regions different aircrafts need. Profit Miles is US Airways regular customer program which gives travelers who fly a specific measure of favored miles advantages, for example, updates, free handled sacks, and early check in choices. Numerous carriers have their own prizes program yet US Airways has the preferred position as it is a piece of the Star Alliance which is the biggest aircraft union. Star Alliance is comprised of 25 aircrafts and regardless of whether you don't fly US Airways as long as you fly one of the union carriers, your favored miles are respected. The Star Alliance has their own superior levels for travelers took on the collusions part programs. So paying little heed to the carrier in the partnership, youre still qualified for the redesigns. Star Alliance makes up 28% of the worldwide piece of the pie and was casted a ballot best carrier partnership in 2007 (the following page shows the individuals fro m the star union and some key realities which was taken from the Star Alliance site). US Airways air terminal parlors are called US Airways Clubs and have 19 parlors in 14 air terminals over the US and can likewise be utilized inside the Star Alliance. This is another advantage that numerous different carriers have however not at all like many including the bigger aircrafts, for example, Delta, permission to the US Airways relax is free with your premium long standing customer program Star Alliance insights Part Airlines: 25 Number of airplane: 3,740 Number of representatives: 458,332 Travelers every year: 586.60 million Deals Revenue (in US$): 169.70 billion Day by day takeoffs: 19,534 Number of air terminals: 1,071 Number of parlors: 954 Nations served: 171 The two by and large qualities that US Airways has over a significant number of its rivals are its Ã¢â¬Å"Do CrewÃ¢â¬ and wellbeing rating. The Do Crew is comprised of volunteer workers that take part in network based projects to assist the network on a month to month premise. The Do Crews set out through their nearby parts which are situated in numerous standard urban communities, for example, Boston, Las Vegas, New York, Charlotte, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Phoenix, and Washington, DC. A significant number of the aircrafts are viewed as just hoping to accomplish capital, in spite of the fact that a definitive objective of all carriers is to sell seats and bring in cash, US Airways shows a feeling of increase by offering back to the network every month. The organization is a glad supporter of Reading is Fundamental (RIF) which assists with circulating books and assist kids with accomplishing proficiency. The most grounded point that US Airways holds which most travelers would search for is they were viewed as the most secure carrier in the US. From January 1, 2002 to January 2, 2007 US Airways had the most reduced mishap rating of .89 mishaps for each 1 million departures. The rundown underneath originated from the site injury.com which shows the main 5 most secure carriers in that period. US Airways (.89 mishaps) Southwest Airlines (2.59 mishaps) America West Airlines (2.96 mishaps) Mainland Airlines (3.17 mishaps) The Frozen North Airlines (3.32 mishaps) Rivalry will consistently exist in the avionics world however these are a portion of the qualities that put aside US Airways from different carriers. Shortcoming of US Airways The same number of solidarity US Airways have, it additionally have their shortcomings that brings down the aircraft notoriety and name. Protests are a typical or day by day circumstance that numerous clients have during the year. Numerous baggage claims have been documented by furious travelers. Like clients gear getting lost and afterward seeming broken and with missing work force things. Like on account of certain clients nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"bigfogieÃ¢â¬ when he lost his baggage in the wake of making associations with another city. At the point when he at long last gets his bag, he discovered that it was broken with all his family blessings and individual stuff harmed. At that point in the wake of submitting a question and documenting their structures for harms, US Airways choice was not to pay for the things. This is lost cognizance of the organization on the grounds that subsequent to submitting the security and trust of the clients gear, it wound up like waste. This issue of pe ople groups properties getting harm is basic since he isn't the just one grumbling for a similar issue. Individuals have passed by a similar issue, which they wind up giving their remarks and comparable encounters. US Airways security has been scaled down making a hazard the airplanes support and people groups lives. Lives haves been in chance in view of the security mandates were not met during the time of October 2008 to January 2009. The method utilized was that the mechanics whould stuff shop towels into the airplane motor, which can make the motor flop in whenever. In that period there were 1,647 flights that could have been influenced, bringing on any anomaly in the motor execution. This is the reason U.S Airways was fined 5.4 million dollars by the Federal Aviation Authority. At the point when this was reported it could make numerous clients change to another aircraft making misfortunes the organization. This is an away from of absence of preparing and should be adjusted. Ã¢â¬Å"U.S AirwaysÃ¢â¬ will be changing their organization structure by gathering their administration in Philadelphia, Charlotte and Phoenix and different urban communities. Because of the rebuilding, the organization will give up certain business sectors and fire 1,000 specialists and suspend administration to Beijing. The rebuilding will cause during the following 3 months decreasing of 64 to 36 flights in Ã¢â¬Å"Las VegasÃ¢â¬ and will be shutting activity in Wichita, Kansas and Colorado Springs, Colorado. During the initial a half year of 2010, US Airways will be shutting team bases in Boston, La Guardia and Las Vegas. 25 Business Travel News announced that Ã¢â¬Å"US Airways likewise highlighted shortcoming in transoceanic income in its arrangement to stop administration from Philadelphia to Birmingham, U.K.; London Gatwick; Milan, Italy; Shannon, Ireland; and Stockholm, Sweden.Ã¢â¬ This will decrease the clients bit of leeway to get to their goals legitimately and will turn into a problem were they should search for new sources and leave US Airways Services. There is a likelihood that income will diminish yet US Airways will move in their administrations which could be killed. Different organizations will take full points of interest of these flights being decreased and bases being shut. These will make different carriers increase new clients with less fitness. Industry Environment In 2008, US Airways confronted an extraordinary change in their organization. US Passes through noteworthy misfortunes as they defy stunning increments in the cost of fuel during that year. The normal quarter cost per barrel of oil beneath in the outline exhibits the runaway of fuel costs during 2008: US aviation routes proceed with this troublesome practical showdown, they couldn't expand the cost of their passes to in any event pay their bigger cost which was fly fuel. These components help different Airlines to exploit where they expanded costs in th
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Human Cloning Essay Cloning The principal thing that must be cleared up is what is cloning, and what is a clone. A clone is a life form got abiogenetically from a solitary individual by cuttings, bulbs, tubers, splitting, or parthenogenesis multiplication (Cloning, 1997). Pathogenesis propagation is the advancement of a living being from an unfertilized ovum, seed or spore (Pathogenesis, 1997). So cloning, naturally, is any procedure wherein creation of a clone is effective. Accordingly, the natural term cloning is the creation of a hereditarily indistinguishable copy of a life form. Nonetheless, individuals can utilize the word cloning to plan different implications. For example, we sum up numerous more established and new procedures as cloning. This is definitely not a decent practice on the grounds that these methods are extraordinary and force novel concerns and issues. In the realm of logical innovation, cloning is the counterfeit creation of living beings with the equivalent hereditary material. R esearchers really call the moving of a core from the phone of one living being to an enucleated egg cell, atomic exchange (Wilmut 811). This will create a creature that has the specific hereditary material as that of the contributor cell. Researchers are utilizing flow methods exceedingly more, and with an assortment of animal categories. Incredibly, a larger number of clones are available on the planet than one would might suspect. In nature, and even in the lives of people, clones are available. As expressed before, a clone is a living being that has a similar hereditary data as another living being. From this we can say that cloning happens with all plants, a few bugs, green growth, unicellular creatures that lead mitosis or parallel parting, and at times by all multi-cell life forms, including people. Monozygotic twins, or indistinguishable twins, are clones of one another. They have the equivalent accurate hereditary data because of the division of an incipient organism from the get-go being developed, which produces two indistinguishable undeveloped organisms. Around 8,000,000 indistinguishable twins are alive on the planet; in this manner, effectively 8,000,000 human clones occupy the world. Today, the main cloning research is happening in logical model life forms. These are life forms that exploration researchers from around the world have gathered rich measures of information. This information is import ant with the goal that headways in research can proceed with all the more effectively. The most widely recognized logical models are E. coli, mice, natural product flies, and frogs. The principal creatures that were cloned utilizing atomic exchange were frogs. This is on the grounds that they have enormous egg cells and researchers can acquire up to 2,000 of them from one ovulation. (McKinnel 79) Successful cloning has happened with animals. The drive toward progress isn't on the grounds that animals like dairy animals and sheep are model life forms. Rather, the cultivating business has put forth and keeps on making a major attempt toward figuring out how to actualize the method of atomic exchange for animals. Research in cloning is additionally happening in primates. The explanation behind contemplating primates is the likenesses with people. This leads us to the most discussed parts of cloning, the utilization of the procedures with human cells and eggs. Cloning of people from a n atural perspective as of now has and is happening. Researchers are inquiring about by parting undeveloped organisms to execute analyses to discover information identifying with cell separation, the utilization of foundational microorganisms, and hereditary screening. Incredibly, hereditary screening is happening in Britain regularly. Ripeness facilities point this administration toward couples where the mother or father has a hereditary issue. A fruitfulness center will clone an undeveloped organism, and afterward test it for hereditary scatters. On the off chance that the undeveloped organism tests negative for hereditary disarranges, at that point the ripeness facility embeds a clone of that incipient organism. This should ensure that the youngster would not have any hereditary issue. (Benoit 2) Amazingly, the main endeavors at fake cloning were as ahead of schedule as the start of this century. Adolph Eduard Driesch permitted the eggs of an ocean urchin form into the two-blastome re stage. At that point he isolated it by shaking it in a flagon and permitting them to develop. The cells formed into predominate ocean urchins. Driesch couldn't clarify his trials and surrendered embryology for reasoning (McKinnel 19). During the late seventies and mid eighties, there were barely any researchers despite everything contemplating cloning. Many had anticipated that it was difficult to clone undeveloped warm blooded animal cells. Barely any proceeded with explore. Many surrendered and went into different fields. Be that as it may, some persevered and were compensated for their endeavors. Gay Parenting Controversy EssayCloning could likewise legitimately offer a methods for relieving maladies or a strategy that could stretch out intends to gaining new information for embryology and improvement of life forms all in all. Researchers anticipate the cloning of pigs to create organs that people won't dismiss (Wills 22). Likewise, as referenced prior, domesticated animals can deliver natural proteins helping individuals who have illnesses including diabetes, Parkinsons, and Cystic Fibrosis (Kolata 2). Cloning likewise gives better research abilities to discovering fixes to numerous illnesses. There are additionally potential outcomes that atomic exchange could give advantages to the individuals who might want kids. For example, couples that are barren, or have hereditary clutters, could utilize cloning to create a youngster. Similarly significant, ladies who are single could have a youngster utilizing cloning rather than in-vitro treatment. Atomic exchange could likewise gi ve kids who need organ transplants to have a clone destined to give organs. Cloning could likewise give a duplicate of a youngster for a couple whose kid had kicked the bucket. Cloning offers some negative influences it could need to life. The most concerning issue with agamic multiplication is that hereditary decent variety gets restricted. On the off chance that a populace of living beings has the equivalent hereditary data, at that point the malady would clear out the populace. This is on the grounds that not one life form has a bit of leeway of battling the infection over the other. The strategy of atomic exchange is additionally right off the bat in its formative stages. Therefore, blunders are happening when researchers do the technique. For example, it took 277 attempts to deliver Dolly, and Roslin researchers created numerous sheep with variations from the norm (Wilmut 811). This is the fundamental explanation science is holding out on cloning people. I additionally accept w e ought not endeavor atomic exchange to deliver a grown-up human until the strategy is idealized. Different contentions for cloning incorporate in the event that we are assuming control over nature by cloning. Strict associations believe atomic exchange to make men be reproductively out of date (Post 19). Strict gatherings guarantee that cloning opposes the standard or their conviction that people have spirits. They likewise think about cloning unnatural, and state we are assuming control over crafted by God. Individuals question when we will adhere to a meaningful boundary for engaging in normal occasions (Bruce 1). There is likewise a discussion regarding the ethical privileges of clones. Some state this will happen on the grounds that there is no birth of freshness (Post 19). We would not get clones with so much energy as an offspring of a couple that imagined normally. In the event that common propagation were to happen, hereditary variety would happen. They state cloning would deny somebody to have any impression of uniqueness. They contend that indistinguishable twins are not exceptional from one another. Notwithstanding, they are new in hereditary variety and novel from anything that preceded them. Individuals additionally wonder what mental and enthusiastic issues would result if a clone were to discover that the person in question was cloned. So any individual who contends that cloning dismisses the laws of God and the spirits of people, they ought to reevaluate their perspectives. Cloning doesn't misleadingly create duplicates of grown-up people. Atomic exchange is the counterfeit creation of an undeveloped organism that will form into an indistinguishable twin. No machine that can create duplicate people when performing atomic exchange is included. Now, I accept we ought not utilize cloning. Be that as it may, on the off chance that we are to wander into cloning we should make numerous safety measures. I think the most ideal approach to do this is t o look into the results. However, I don't think cloning of creatures is satisfactory. In this way, I don't figure we should direct cloning investigate creatures. In synopsis, cloning is moral, except if there is absence of regard for the lives of creatures and people, and for the continuous inhabitation of life on earth. Book index Works Cited Kluger, Jeffery. Will we Follow the Sheep? Time Magazine. Walk 10, 1997 Vol. 149 No.10 The Cloning Controversy. Online Available http://www.sican.com/investigations. September 23, 1998. Morals on Cloning: The current issue. Online Available http://www.time.com/cloning. September 24, 1998. National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Online Available http://bioethics.gov/pubs.html. September 24, 1998. Value, Joyce. Before There was Dolly, There Were Disasters: Scientists neglected to reveal irregularities. The Washington Times. Walk 11, 1997. Words/Pages : 2,159/24
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Poisonwood Bible Essay TopicsOne of the few Bible study exercises that are very beneficial for anyone to try is The Poisonwood Bible Essay Topics. The reasons why are many, and you should get to know them before attempting this course. But one thing is for sure, they will work for you if you want to better understand some key figures in the bible.The entire point of the Poisonwood Bible Essay Topics is to help the reader see a way to understand the scriptures. One of the ways is to read the bible at its most basic level. One need only read for a few minutes to be able to grasp this concept. There is no other better way.As a person reads through the bible, it will teach him about various situations and events that are happening around the earth at that time. However, it may take a person a little while to understand such events from start to finish. With the Poisonwood Bible Essay Topics you will learn all about those events which are occurring at any time. This is true so that yo u can better understand when certain events took place in history.Another way the Bible teaches you about the natural world is by the creation of the first man. This has been said by Moses during the creation event, and you need to have a grasp of this aspect before you can begin to appreciate the rest of the content. It will help you with understanding the stories of the Old Testament, as well as the times ahead.Also, as a person begins to understand the main points of the scriptures, he will learn much more about the life of Jesus Christ, and about his life in general. Of course, you do not have to believe everything that is being said. What you need to do is to simply sit down and understand what is being said.One more thing you need to remember is that the Poisonous Vine has been there all along. It is an agent that is used in order to sow discord between friends and family members. It was used at times in the past and in the present by Satan and the Antichrist.But, the Scriptur es of the Old Testament have always told us that we have a living witness of these agents and their works. In addition, the Christian Bible also uses these agents to explain their purpose in history. The writings of the Apostle Paul is a perfect example of this.The Poisonwood Bible Essay Topics is certainly a great course to take. If you want to better understand the scriptures, and the history of events that took place at the first century A.D., then this course is a great place to start.
Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2813 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Topics: Crime Essay Criminal Law Essay Did you like this example? Judicial staying of criminal proceedings is an exceptional course for the trial judge to take and usually the trial process itself including appropriate judicial directions to the jury, is adequate to ensure that a criminal trial remains fair at common law and Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, as given effect to in the Human Rights Act 1998. Critically evaluate this comment in the light of appropriate case law. The fundamental issue being raised is the fairness of criminal trials. The remedies that are used by criminal courts when the judge decides that there has been some unfairness in the proceedings include staying of proceedings, quashing of indictments and excluding evidence. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Keeping criminal trials fair" essay for you Create order Exclusion of evidence can be made during the trial process, by means of the trial judge directing that the jury ignore that evidence, and staying of proceedings stops the trial process, and is only exercised when there has been an abuse of the process. English fair trial jurisprudence commenced from domestic common law, then developed via section 78 of Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, and thereafter via international human rights law, in particular Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) incorporated into domestic legislation by the Human Rights Act 1988 (HRA 1988), as discussed below. Regarding the exclusion of evidence, the original common law rule from the mid-eighteenth century to early twentieth century, was that the admissibility of evidence at trial was wholly unaffected by the circumstances in which it was obtained 1, and also reaffirmed in 1955 by the Court of Appeal. 2 The trial judgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s discretion at common law to exclude relevant evidence was provided in Sang, 3 which laid down two principles that evidence could be excluded, firstly if it was to have a prejudicial effect outweighing its potential value, and secondly to exclude improperly or unfairly obtained evidence. In Sang the trial judge ruled that he had no discretion to exclude evidence relating to the commission of an offence to conspire to utter forged banknotes on the basis that it had been initiated by an agent provocateur, that is, an agent enticing the defendant to commit the crime, being the defence of entrapment. This was reaffirmed by the House of Lords, in which the existence of the discretion to exclude improperly or unfairly obtained evidence was recognised, but that this was limited to evidence obtained after the commission of the offence. 4 ______________________________________________________________________________ 1 R v Warwickshall  1 Leach 263; R v Griffin  Russ Ry 151 2 Kuruma Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" R  A.C. 197 3 R v Sang  AC 402 HL 4 Brannan Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Peek  1 K.B. 68 The trial judgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s discretion to exclude evidence was only exercised in exceptional circumstances. In Apicella 5, a sample of bodily fluid taken from the defendant in a routine examination and used to verify that he had passed on a venereal disease to the victims was not held to be an unfair use of prosecution evidence. Furthermore, even illegality of police procedures could not render such evidence inadmissible as in Fox Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Chief Constable of Gwent 6, where although it was held that the actions of police officers in unlawfully entering the defendantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s property to arrest and take him to the police station to provide a breath sample, instrumental in securing a conviction for drunk driving, the sample itself as evidence was still admissible evidence. Since the mid 19 80s, the common law approach was radically altered by the development of the exclusionary discretion under section 78 PACE 1984, which provides:- In any proceedings, the court may refuse to allow evidence on which the prosecution proposes to rely to be given if it appears to the court that, having regard to all the circumstances, including the circumstances in which the evidence was obtained, the admission of the evidence would have such an adverse effect on the fairness of the proceedings that the court ought not to admit it. The landmark case of Mason 7 showed that the Court of Appeal was prepared to interpret section 78 broadly and marked the departure from the common law approach. The Court of Appeal allowed the appeal and quashed the conviction of the defendant, as his confession had been obtained after being falsely informed by police officers that his fingerprint had been found at the scene of the crime. As stated above, the defence of entrapment, (Sang, ibid), was not considered a valid defence at common law. However, in Smurthwaite; Gill 8 the trial judge took into account such allegations when exercising his discretion under section 78, though the evidence was admitted as the trial judge decided that the police officer, though posing as an undercover hit man, was not acting as an agent provocateur when he recorded the secret conversations of a husband and wife hiring him to kill each other, as the defendants made their own efforts and were not enticed. In the case of identification eviden ce, the trial judge is required to warn the jury of the need for caution and explain the reasons for it, particularly the particular dangers attached to the evidence. This is the Turnbull direction, in which the judge asks the jury to carefully consider the circumstances in which the witness saw the offender and a reminder that even a confident witness can be wrong. 9 ______________________________________________________________________________ 5 Apicella  Cr App R 295 6  1 AC 281, HL 7 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Mason  1 WLR 139 CA 8 R v Smurthwaite; R v Gill  98 Cr App R 437 CA 9 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Turnbull  3 All ER 549 In Boardman Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" DPP 10 Lord Hailsham laid down further guidelines in identification cases, that if the only evidence the prosecution has is a history of a pattern of similar offences, this would be weak and prejudicial evidence, and a Ã ¢Ã ¢â ¬ÃÅ"hallmarkÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"signatureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ is required, as demonstrated in Mullen 11, in which the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"signatureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ was the use of a torch to crack the window glass by means of a blow to gain entry. Identification evidence reduces the need to establish such a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"signatureÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, but an identification parade has been deemed to be unnecessary if the witness knows the defendant. 12 In Beckford 13 such a warning was deemed necessary even though the witness knew the defendants and the main issue at hand was not accuracy. The prosecution is required to demonstrate that the circumstances of the identification are of good quality to avoid a submission of no case, in which the judge withdraws the case from the jury. However, in cases involving an abnormal or perverted personality, such as in cases of sexual offences, the jury may attach excessive weight to the pattern of previous convictions in ma king a decision about the defendantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s guilt, the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"similar facts principleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢, as in West 14, in which Rosemary West was accused of complicity in her husband Frederick WestÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s abduction, torture, rape and murder of young girls, and all evidence relating to her sexual history was laid bare. The justification for the admission of such evidence was to demonstrate that she had such a perverted personality that she was capable of anything, and the Court of Appeal dismissed any prejudice. In such cases, it is for the trial judge to make the appropriate directions to the jury and to consider whether to exclude such evidence, but as the Criminal Law Revision Committee suggested 15, this problem does not exist in France where the defendantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s criminal record is read out at the commencement of the trial. In any event, the law is inclined to ban evidence which shows that the defendant has the disposition or propens ity to behave in a certain way if the probative value of the evidence is exceeded by its prejudicial effect. However, in Kray and others 16, it was held that a number of offences of a similar character could constitute a series of offences, in which the evidence relating to one could be admissible in the trial of another. In such cases the judge can exercise his discretion to direct that counts be severed and order separate trials, to avoid joining of the charges, it he considers that this would affect fairness of the proceedings. ______________________________________________________________________________ 10  90 Cr App R 325 11 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Mullen  Crim L R 735 12 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v- Reid  Crim LR 442 13 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Beckford  Crim LR 944 14 The Times, 3 Apr 1996 15 Evidence (General) Eleventh Report (1972) 16 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Kray and others [ 1969] 53 Cr App R 569 In Sawoniuk 17, regarding the admission of evidence of multiple instances of the defendantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s mistreatment of Jewish prisoners in a war crimes prosecution, the Court of Appeal permitted the presentation of this evidence but as background evidence than under the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"similar facts principleÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢. Following on from section 78, the HRA 1988 enabled the direct application of the European Convention on Human Rights into English law. Article 6(1) of the ECHR provides that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âeveryone is entitled to a fair and public hearingÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.by an independent and impartial tribunal established by lawÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . The main impact of the application of the ECHR is that the trial judge was given considerable discretion to ascertain whether the proceedings as a whole, including the way evidence was taken, was fair. In Shannon 18, entrapment was a key consideration for the trial judge in deciding whether to rule evidence as inadmissible, but did not justify exclusion of the evidence. The agent provocateur, in this instance, was a journalist who posed as an Arab Sheikh and the defendant supplied him with drugs, but the appeal that this evidence was unfairly obtained and thereby the defendant was denied a fair trial with regard to Article 6 of the ECHR was unsuccessful. The trial judge, in exercising his discretion whether to exclude the evidence, had to consider whether admission would compromise the fairness of the trial as if the evidence was unreliable or tainted. In considering this, the Court of Appeal looked at the European CourtÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s judgement in Texeira 19. The Court decided that there had been a violation of Article 6(1) as the defendant had been denied a fair trial from the outset. Two undercover police officers asked to buy heroin from the defendant, who bought the drugs for them, but the court had regard to the lack of evidence that he was predisposed to crime a nd the offence would not have been committed but for the officersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ intervention. The Court of Appeal distinguished Shannon from Texiera on the basis that there was not an actual incitement by the agent provocateur to commit the offence in the former case. The House of Lords, looking at Shannon, decided that the Texiera judgement did not intend to state that there was a breach of Article 6 every time police officers provided an opportunity to commit an offence and the person took advantage of it. 20 ______________________________________________________________________________ 17 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Sawoniuk  2 Cr A R 220 CA 18  1 Cr App R 168 19 Texiera de Castro Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Portugal  28 EHRR 313 para 74; Att-GenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Reference (No 2 of 2001) 1 WLR 1869  20 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Looseley: Att-GenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Reference (No 3 of 2000) [2 002] 1 Cr App R 29 Regarding the exercise of the trial judgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s discretion to stay proceedings for abuse of process, the case of Latif 21 considered whether illegality in the investigation process could lead to a prosecution being stayed for abuse of process. The House of Lords considered that such illegality could have this effect but that this would not necessarily lead to a stay of proceedings. Lord Steyn set a test: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe judge must weigh in the balance the public interest in ensuring that those that are charged with grave crimes should be tried and the competing public interest in not conveying the impression that the court will adopt the approach that the end justifies the means.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã In Chalkley 22, the scope of section 78 in exclusion of evidence was regarded as entirely distinct from the question of whether a prosecution should be stayed for abuse of process. In Looseley, the trial judge exercised his discretion to stay the p roceedings. In this case, undercover police officers cajoled a defendant into selling them heroin by plying him with cigarettes and making repeated requests, when the defendant had actually disclaimed any interest in drug dealing. The trial judge decided that the officers had solicited the offence and ordered a stay of the proceedings for an abuse of the process. The Court of Appeal overturned this decision and decided that the defendant had voluntarily provided the drugs to the officers and had had previous convictions for drug dealing. The House of Lords issued monumental directives regarding the importance of maintaining fairness and integrity of criminal proceedings. The House of Lords allowed this defendantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s appeal and Lord Nicholls stated:- Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âEvery court has an inherent power and duty to prevent abuse of its process. This is a fundamental principle of lawÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦It is simply not acceptable that the state through its agents should lure its citizens into committing acts forbidden by the law and then seek to prosecute them for doing so. That would be entrapment.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã The House of Lords agreed that a stay of proceedings on the grounds that there had been an abuse of process was the only acceptable remedy. However, it was also considered that section 78 would be applicable where tainted evidence could be excluded from the trial process without having to stop it. A clear distinction has been drawn between a willing defendant ready to supply drugs and someone who was coerced into this via a campaign of repeated requests and encouragements. ______________________________________________________________________________ 21 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Latif  1 All ER 353 22 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Chalkley  2 Cr App R 79 Lord Hoffman laid down five criteria for the admissibility of evidence, having had regard to the guidance of trial judges in previo us cases. These criteria have refined the Court of AppealÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s approach to the jurisprudence on entrapment and have established a framework for trial judges to follow when deciding when to exercise their discretion to exclude evidence or stay proceedings. Staying of proceedings is obviously considered to be the only remedy where there has been a clear abuse of process, but this must be decided upon with regard to the facts of the case. Fairness of proceedings can also be affected by whether the prosecution chooses to withhold disclosure on the grounds of public interest, but this must be on the basis of an informed decision after consulting the Treasury Solicitor 23. Public interests include the protection of police operations, though this obviously conflicts with cases where entrapment has been used. Recommendations have been provided by the Royal Commission on Criminal Justice that trial judges be given the power to exclude repetitious or conflicting evidence 2 4, an attempt to avoid time-wasting in this respect. Recommendations have also been provided by the Auld Review of the Criminal Courts, which highlighted the problems that may occur when evidence obtained through deception or otherwise, is excluded, even if it is potentially reliable, and looked at the overlap between the courtsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ power to stay proceedings as an abuse of its process and its powers to exclude evidence. The Review called for simplification of the jurisprudence regarding the exclusion of unfairly obtained evidence and that of staying a prosecution on the ground of an abuse of process. In fact, the Review called for more trust to be given to the trial judgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s discretion, as stated:- Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe English law of criminal evidence should, in general, move away from technical rules of inadmissibility to trusting judicial and lay fact finders to give relevant evidence the weight it deservesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . In conclusion, it is submitted that the trial judgeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s present powers to exclude evidence are sufficient. The trial judge has an extremely wide discretion to exclude unfairly obtained evidence and to stay proceedings if he or she considers there has been an abuse of the process. The exercise of staying of proceedings is only rarely exercised, as there has to be a clear abuse of process, as in Looseley, otherwise the judge can just direct the exclusion of such evidence. The guidelines provided from section 78 and thereafter the human rights law incorporated after 1988 have further refined and developed the original common law approach into a fairer system of the administration of criminal justice. As stated in Montgomery and Coultier 25, the Scots law requirement is to balance the interests of the defendant as opposed to the public interest in ensuring that a serious crime is prosecuted, and this should be the main consideration in English law. ________________________________________ ______________________________________ 23 R Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Horseferry Road Magistrates Court, ex parte Bennett (No. 2)  1 All ER 289 24 Cm 2263, para 8.13 25 Montgomery Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Coultier Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" v Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" HM Advocate  2 WLR 779 BIBLIOGRAPHY A Guide to The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984: TC Walters MA OÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢Connell (Financial Training Publications) pp 103-104 Criminal Evidence (5th edition): Richard May Steven Powles 5th edition (Sweet and Maxwell) pp10-02 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" 10-33 Criminal Evidence: Paul Roberts Adrian Zuckerman (Oxford) pp147 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" 175 Criminal Evidence Procedure: The Essential Framework (2nd edition): Stephen Seabrooke John Sprack (Blackstone) Evidence and the Adversarial Process Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" The Modern Law (2nd edition): Jenny McEwan (Hart Publishing) pp 197 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" 221 Human Rights, Serious Crimes and Criminal Procedure: The Hamlyn Lectures: Andrew Ashworth QC (Sweet Maxwell) pp 52 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" 87 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984: A Practical Guide: Greg Powell Chris Magrath (Oyez) pp 192-206 The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (3rd edition): Michael Zander (Sweet Maxwell) pp 172 251
Friday, May 15, 2020
Comparing Poets The literature of an era defines the culture that exists during that period of time. For poets, they take upon themselves the responsibility of showing the culture of their eras through shorter, more rhythmic pieces. In the cases of authors Langston Hughes and John Lennon, each embodies the culture in which he was writing. The poems Mother to Son and Eleanor Rigby both share certain poetic elements which serve to reflect their cultures and to establish a narrative between the poet and his readership, or in the case of John Lennon, his listeners as Eleanor Rigby was recorded as a song and heard by music lovers around the world before it was recognized as a piece of brilliant lyric poetry. Although the two men wrote from four decades apart, each one took the basic components of poetry and poetic conceits to create works which would reflect and progress their cultures. Hughes poem Mother to Son uses the rhythmic patterns of poetry to convey a lesson that is from a mother to her child, but it is also symbolic of a message that is related from an experienced individual and then passed down to someone who is potentially more naÃ¨ ª °ve about the ways of the world. In the poem, the narrator speaks from the point of view of a mother talking to her son about the life that she has led. Life has not been easy for her and she has had to struggle throughout her life to acquire the simple lot that she possesses. She uses the imagery of a crystal staircase to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Edgar Allan Poe is regarded as one of the most famous writers of all time. He is known for his sinister and horrific tales and his seemingly pessimistic view on life. This overwhelming theme is rarely questioned by other writers and fans alike because of his personal tragedies; it is only fitting that a man as disturbed as Poe would write such troubled stories. It is common knowledge to most that Poe had a heartrending life; he lost his biological mother, adoptive mother, and wife all before he went to college. Poe used the tragic premature endings of his family members as inspiration to write his trademark literature, lengthy eloquent works revolving around fatality. It is atypical for one of his stories to not mention death in one wayÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some like Kenneth Dauber, who studied PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s work at a later date, believe Poe mostly wrote Ã¢â¬Å"stories written around a vacancyÃ¢â¬ . While in reality, Poe may not be a modern Pluto or a Ã¢â¬Å"failureÃ¢â¬ of a writer, the majority of people, despite their personal opinions, cannot argue that Poe is a writer that has much influence over his readers, often making them feel like characters in his own stories. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writing style is quite distinctive; he writes exactly how he wants you to feel, which is usually petrified or bewildered. If the sentences are short, the mood is apprehensive; longer sentences usually mean a calmer point in the twisted plot. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ , the narrator describes how he Ã¢â¬Å"cautiously- oh, so cautiously, cautiouslyÃ¢â¬ went about killing an old man, a person he said he Ã¢â¬Å"lovedÃ¢â¬ , because his eye was bothering him. (Poe, 303) As the narrator describes how he Ã¢â¬Å"kept quiet and still for a whole hour [and] did not move a muscleÃ¢â¬ , the details make the reader tense up like he is the one about to commit the crime. Likewise PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s images about the pendulum in Ã¢â¬Å"The Pit and the PendulumÃ¢â¬ are lifelike; one can almost see the Ã¢â¬Å"razor, tapering from the edgeÃ¢â¬ ¦that [was] perceptively [descending]Ã¢â¬ (Poe, 252). In both stories, the impending nature of the end to life, or death, is profuse, due to PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic life. PoeShow MoreRelatedEdgar Allan Poe s Three Techniques For Dark Writing999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEdgar Allan Poe s Three Techniques for Dark Writing Edgar Allan Poe is a poet who makes his poetry very strong, dark and suspenseful; to do this Poe uses imagery, mood and tone. These three techniques help create a feeling of horror. Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of the AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å" The RavenÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"The Tale Tell HeartÃ¢â¬ are the three stories that show these techniques clearly. Imagery is represented to help the atmosphere have horror and it helps the reader see what s going on in the story. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask ofRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe Biography. By. Alyssa Marshall.1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Edgar Allan Poe Biography By Alyssa Marshall Mrs. Guinn English III March 6, 2017 Abstract Edgar Allan Poe was a writer in the Ã¢â¬Å"Gothic EraÃ¢â¬ , many of his stories genres are horror like Ã¢â¬Å" The Masque of The Red DeathÃ¢â¬ , mystery such as Ã¢â¬Å" The Fall of The House of UsherÃ¢â¬ , lost love as in Ã¢â¬Å" The RavenÃ¢â¬ , and obsession such as Ã¢â¬Å" The Pit and The PendulumÃ¢â¬ . EdgarÃ¢â¬â¢s poemsRead MoreThe Writings of Edgar Allan Poe803 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEdgar Allan Poe The amazing, the people who inspire, who make people feel something with words on paper, authors. Authors have a special ability to create a separate world, but a great author lets us into their world and makes us feel something when we read their work. From all of the research Colton Coverston has done, he has come to the conclusion that Edgar Allan Poe should be in the top fifth American Authors on a top twenty greatest American author list. Edgar Allan Poe has written many piecesRead MoreThe Life and Works of Edgar Allan Poe Essay1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Throughout the life of Edgar Allan Poe, he suffered many unfortunate events and endured several difficult situations. Some speculate that it was these experiences that helped to formulate the famous writing style of Edgar Allan Poe. His dark tales such as The Masque of the Red Death and The Tell-Tale Heart are horrific, and his poems such as Alone and The Raven show evidence that his life experiences influenced their drearines s. Poes story plots and his own life are undeniably related andRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe Revlutionized Literature in the 19th Century665 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEdgar Allan Poe revolutionized the literary world of the nineteenth century. Poe is a well-known author from the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, who was part of the dark romanticism movement. While later in life he was a brilliant writer, Edgar Allan Poe faced many problems in his early life. Although Poe experienced death within his family at a young age, the hardships he encountered are thought to have influenced his dark writing style. These death inspired elements within PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s writing were ahead of their timeRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe And Nathaniel Hawthorne848 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbreaking free from the intellectual traditions of the past. This is effectively expressed by Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne despite differences in their writing style through the stories of The Raven and The Scarlet Letter respectively. Although their writing style is different, both authors indicate that breaking free from intellectual traditions of the past is present in their writing. Both Poe and Hawthorne want to know why things happen rather than how things happen so they focus onRead MoreThe Dark Romanticism Of Edgar Allan Poe1497 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEdgar Allan Poe was a prominent writer during the era of Romanticism, but PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s poems focused primarily on the Dark Romanticism, developed under Romanticism. The era of Romanticism was commonly described as showing raw emotion, but there was still a conflict in the story. The purpose of Romanticism was for the writer to feel free; there were no rules when it came to this form of writing. Dark Romanticism was looking at the gothic side of stories rather than the heroism stories, which focused moreRead MoreThe Tortured Poet : Edgar Allan Poe1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Tortured Poet: Edgar Allan Poe Ã¢â¬Å"Beauty is the sole legitimate province of the poemÃ¢â¬ Poe, Edgar Allan. The Philosophy of Composition. 1846. The name Poe often brings to mind tales of horror and mystery, but this Poe was also a writer of sophisticated poems, capable of extreme poetic beauty within a dark genre of writing. Poe never lived the happiest of lives, but his writing is extraordinary, both for its execution, and for the sheer elegance of the words which he found to write upon the pageRead MoreEdgar Allan Poes Impact on American Literature1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEdgar Allan Poe is one of the most influential writers of the horror genre in American history. His horror stories have impacted numerous authors and their stories over the years. Various people have tried to copy his way of writing style, but they have failed to achieve the success he did. Even though Poe is no longer living, his impact on American literature can still be felt today. Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts on January 19, 1809. Even though Edgar Allan Poe did not growRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s The Dark Poems That He Is Famous For?1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEdgar Allan Poe Why did Poe write the dark poems that he is famous for? Almost every student has read either one or many of Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Poe is one of the best and most famous writers in American Literature. Professor Gene Doty of Missouri University of Science and Technology explains, Ã¢â¬Å"The meaning which the text has for the reader emerges from the interaction of the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s world with the world of the textÃ¢â¬ (Doty). Anything written is a context that includes the Ã¢â¬Å"writerÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings,
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
This essay explores firstly the insight offered by applying aspects of the Chicago Schools theory, specifically the Concentric Zone Model and analysis of the City, to the subcultures group of gangs. Their ideas will be explored and contrasted with those in Brown, Vigil and Taylor 2012 article: The Categorization of Blacks in Los Angles: the Emergence of Street Gangs.Further to this I will analyses the limitations of the Chicago Schools theory and contrast this with insight offered form the Birmingham School of thought. The notion of culture can be conceptualized in a variety of different ways but in mineral terms can be purported to encompass the behavioral norms of a society and the knowledge, beliefs and laws which inform their customs (Taylor, 1871). Similarly, the definition Of what constitutes a subculture is contested and open to multiple interpretations.The common theme of subcultures definitions includes the notion that subcultures construct, perceive and portray themselves a s isolated groups separate from the parent culture (Macdonald, 2001, 152). The relationship be;en culture and subculture can arguably be understood through the subcultures subordinate, subaltern and subterranean relationship principally the vestures inferior status which has been conferred through conceptual difference (Thornton, 1995, 4).The Chicago School was established in 1 982 and remained at the pinnacle of sociological thought through to the late sass. The American sociological tradition, which was influenced greatly by the work of Druthers, Simmer and Townies, has focused largely on the ecological model of society and on the emergence of subcultures, a result of arbitration with the City at the Crux of social investigation (Williams, 2007). Central to the schools work on the city is Park and Burgess Concentric ZoneModel which uses an amalgamation of ethnographic methods and ecology to construct a diagram of urban land use (Mansions and Plumper, 2005). The Concentric Zone Model theory proposes that the form of the City falls into five concentric rin gs, formed through an organic rhythm as opposed to strategic forethought. Each band is colored by levels of desirability and the social consequences of each zone, with the city centre as the most degenerate area impacted highly by social changes such as poverty, overcrowding and immigration (Mansions and Plumper, 2005).Social dislocations, such as: gangs, violence and crime, for the Chicago School are ironically considered to be consequences of the intersection of urban ecology and social stratification (Headgear). Brown, Vigil and Tailors article focuses on the lived reality of the African-American community from a historical perspective in an attempt to explain gang formation and in doing so stresses the significance Of the effects Of racism. Central to their argue meet is the concept of multiple marginality who ICC reflects the complexities and persistence of racial forces on the African-American experience (Vigil, 1978).The image of the African-American community is arguably intrinsically linked tit that of, guns, drugs, gangs and murder making it hard to separate the two ideals from each other however this negates the fact that the African- American community thrived for over a century and a half before the conditions deteriorated (Brown, Vigil, Taylor, 2012, 225). The rise of gangs was a result of the normalization of the Black community which ranged from employment discrimination to social segregation, a process by which the opportunities and prospects of both adults and youth in the co mmunity was severely limited (Degrade, 1980).The Chicago Schools explanation for the cause of gangs contrasts that which s presented in the article. Robert Park, suggested that gangs are a result of city wilderness influenced by their location in the concentric zone model without regard to race, creed or color (Park, 1927). Brown, Vigil and Tailors article proposes that this idea overlooks the way in which the African- Americans place in the Concentric Zone model was determined by racist attitudes. Vigil (1980) suggests that, the African-Americans living in Chicago Were forcibly segregated and relegated to the fringes of society into the least desirable social and economic conditions at the city centre as a result of their ace. The two theories align in the sense that the further away you get from the city centre the better off you are but disagree as to why this is. This fundamental difference in thinking leads to different conceptions of gangs, with the Concentric Zone Model offering a useful description of crime and gang stratification but failing to provide an accurate explanation.Cohen and Taylor (1 989), suggest that the importance the Chicago school places on space overlooks the fundamental issue of race which fundamentally shaped Chicago and is inextricably linked with the division of class and opportunity. The Chicago School overlooked the importance of the African-Americans forced segregation and rather focused on other ethnic groups successful assimilation and succes sful social mobility through the process of succession and dominance, options not available to the African-American population.Further criticism of the Chicago Schools theory is historically and contextually specific and therefore dated in its relevance, for example, in Auckland, the City Centre rent prices are higher than those on the outskirts, which is essentially the opposite to the Concentric Zone Model (Macro Auckland, n. ). The ideas of the Birmingham school (CSS) broke away from the concepts of the Chicago School favoring a neo-Marxian approach focusing on class and power. The CSS rejected the ethnographic approach of the American tradition and focused on semiotic analysis in an attempt to deconstruct the assigned meanings of subcultures.The CSS focused on the emergence of youth subcultures in Britain however their theory is useful in the analysis of gangs in Chicago as it introduces the idea of subcultures as a site Of resistance against the parent culture (Clarke et al. 1976). Rapid migration into he Transitional Zone of the City produced ramifications that the African- American community were unable to deal with further increasing their racial isolation, which accompanied with racial oppression lead to the emergence of African- American gangs as a form of retaliation (Collins, 1977).African- American gangs such as the Black Panther movement engaged in political action against the oppressive actions of the white powers and were often acts of self-defense as opposed to provocation. The larger gangs were disseminated in the late 1 sass resulting in a generation of youth without role oodles in search of a new identity that was ultimately found in gang life (Alonso, 1999). The formation of gangs and gang membership initially provided as a means of social resistance but was transformed into bonds of necessity as the youth required protection from external threats and rivalries.Further to this the youth were largely uneducated which made opportunities available to them limited, the youth sought employment and the gangs offered drug sale commissions and robberies (Davis, 1992). In conclusion, our understanding of subcultures can be enhanced through the academic abates of subcultures theorists. The Chicago Schools work on the Concentric Zone Model revealed the Way in which the early city of Chicago was divided in terms of urban ecology.While the article by Brown, Vigil and Taylor contest the idea that the concentric bands have been formed through organic rhythm and proposes rather that this has taken place through the historical patterns of racism. In contrast the work of the Birmingham School allows for the deconstruction of the norms that are usually in ferred to present Brown, Vigil and Tailors premise that gang culture is not inherent to African-American society but rather as a socialized habit.Despite the limitations of each theory, their contribution to the understating of subcultures activity has successfully enhanced and deepened the multiple understandings that we have of subcultures groupings and have assisted in providing a language to code the way that we analysis them.